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When using a transceiver that displays the carrier frequency of phone signals, which of the following displayed frequencies represents the highest frequency at which a properly adjusted USB emission will be totally within the band?
When using a transceiver that displays the carrier frequency of phone signals, which of the following displayed frequencies represents the lowest frequency at which a properly adjusted LSB emission will be totally within the band?
With your transceiver displaying the carrier frequency of phone signals, you hear a station calling CQ on 14.349 MHz USB. Is it legal to return the call using upper sideband on the same frequency?
With your transceiver displaying the carrier frequency of phone signals, you hear a DX station calling CQ on 3.601 MHz LSB. Is it legal to return the call using lower sideband on the same frequency?
What is the maximum power output permitted on the 60 meter band?
Where must the carrier frequency of a CW signal be set to comply with FCC rules for 60 meter operation?
Which amateur band requires transmission on specific channels rather than on a range of frequencies?
If a station in a message forwarding system inadvertently forwards a message that is in violation of FCC rules, who is primarily accountable for the rules violation?
What is the first action you should take if your digital message forwarding station inadvertently forwards a communication that violates FCC rules?
If an amateur station is installed aboard a ship or aircraft, what condition must be met before the station is operated?
Which of the following describes authorization or licensing required when operating an amateur station aboard a U.S.-registered vessel in international waters?
With your transceiver displaying the carrier frequency of CW signals, you hear a DX station's CQ on 3.500 MHz. Is it legal to return the call using CW on the same frequency?
Who must be in physical control of the station apparatus of an amateur station aboard any vessel or craft that is documented or registered in the United States?
What is the maximum bandwidth for a data emission on 60 meters?
Which of the following constitutes a spurious emission?
Which of the following factors might cause the physical location of an amateur station apparatus or antenna structure to be restricted?
Within what distance must an amateur station protect an FCC monitoring facility from harmful interference?
What must be done before placing an amateur station within an officially designated wilderness area or wildlife preserve, or an area listed in the National Register of Historical Places?
What is the National Radio Quiet Zone?
Which of the following additional rules apply if you are installing an amateur station antenna at a site at or near a public use airport?
What is the highest modulation index permitted at the highest modulation frequency for angle modulation below 29.0 MHz?
What limitations may the FCC place on an amateur station if its signal causes interference to domestic broadcast reception, assuming that the receivers involved are of good engineering design?
Which amateur stations may be operated under RACES rules?
What frequencies are authorized to an amateur station operating under RACES rules?
What is the permitted mean power of any spurious emission relative to the mean power of the fundamental emission from a station transmitter or external RF amplifier installed after January 1, 2003 and transmitting on a frequency below 30 MHZ?
What is a remotely controlled station?
What is meant by automatic control of a station?
How do the control operator responsibilities of a station under automatic control differ from one under local control?
What is meant by IARP?
When may an automatically controlled station originate third party communications?
Which of the following statements concerning remotely controlled amateur stations is true?
What is meant by local control?
What is the maximum permissible duration of a remotely controlled station's transmissions if its control link malfunctions?
Which of these ranges of frequencies is available for an automatically controlled repeater operating below 30 MHz?
What types of amateur stations may automatically retransmit the radio signals of other amateur stations?
Which of the following operating arrangements allows an FCC-licensed U.S. citizen to operate in many European countries, and alien amateurs from many European countries to operate in the U.S.?
What types of communications may be transmitted to amateur stations in foreign countries?
Which of the following is required in order to operate in accordance with CEPT rules in foreign countries where permitted?
What is the definition of the term telemetry?
What is the amateur satellite service?
What is a telecommand station in the amateur satellite service?
What is an Earth station in the amateur satellite service?
What class of licensee is authorized to be the control operator of a space station?
Which of the following is a requirement of a space station?
Which amateur service HF bands have frequencies authorized for space stations?
Which VHF amateur service bands have frequencies available for space stations?
Which UHF amateur service bands have frequencies available for a space station?
Which amateur stations are eligible to be telecommand stations?
Which amateur stations are eligible to operate as Earth stations?
What is the minimum number of qualified VEs required to administer an Element 4 amateur operator license examination?
Where are the questions for all written U.S. amateur license examinations listed?
What is a Volunteer Examiner Coordinator?
Which of the following best describes the Volunteer Examiner accreditation process?
What is the minimum passing score on amateur operator license examinations?
Who is responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision during an amateur operator license examination session?
What should a VE do if a candidate fails to comply with the examiner's instructions during an amateur operator license examination?
To which of the following examinees may a VE not administer an examination?
What may be the penalty for a VE who fraudulently administers or certifies an examination?
What must the administering VEs do after the administration of a successful examination for an amateur operator license?
What must the VE team do if an examinee scores a passing grade on all examination elements needed for an upgrade or new license?
What must the VE team do with the application form if the examinee does not pass the exam?
Which of these choices is an acceptable method for monitoring the applicants if a VEC opts to conduct an exam session remotely?
For which types of out-of-pocket expenses do the Part 97 rules state that VEs and VECs may be reimbursed?
On what frequencies are spread spectrum transmissions permitted?
What privileges are authorized in the U.S. to persons holding an amateur service license granted by the Government of Canada?
Under what circumstances may a dealer sell an external RF power amplifier capable of operation below 144 MHz if it has not been granted FCC certification?
Which of the following geographic descriptions approximately describes "Line A"?
Amateur stations may not transmit in which of the following frequency segments if they are located in the contiguous 48 states and north of Line A?
Under what circumstances might the FCC issue a Special Temporary Authority (STA) to an amateur station?
When may an amateur station send a message to a business?
Which of the following types of amateur station communications are prohibited?
Which of the following conditions apply when transmitting spread spectrum emission?
What is the maximum permitted transmitter peak envelope power for an amateur station transmitting spread spectrum communications?
Which of the following best describes one of the standards that must be met by an external RF power amplifier if it is to qualify for a grant of FCC certification?
Who may be the control operator of an auxiliary station?
What is the direction of an ascending pass for an amateur satellite?
What is the direction of a descending pass for an amateur satellite?
What is the orbital period of an Earth satellite?
What is meant by the term mode as applied to an amateur radio satellite?
What do the letters in a satellite's mode designator specify?
On what band would a satellite receive signals if it were operating in mode U/V?
Which of the following types of signals can be relayed through a linear transponder?
Why should effective radiated power to a satellite which uses a linear transponder be limited?
What do the terms L band and S band specify with regard to satellite communications?
Why may the received signal from an amateur satellite exhibit a rapidly repeating fading effect?
What type of antenna can be used to minimize the effects of spin modulation and Faraday rotation?
What is one way to predict the location of a satellite at a given time?
What type of satellite appears to stay in one position in the sky?
What technology is used to track, in real time, balloons carrying amateur radio transmitters?
How many times per second is a new frame transmitted in a fast-scan (NTSC) television system?
How many horizontal lines make up a fast-scan (NTSC) television frame?
How is an interlaced scanning pattern generated in a fast-scan (NTSC) television system?
What is blanking in a video signal?
Which of the following is an advantage of using vestigial sideband for standard fast- scan TV transmissions?
What is vestigial sideband modulation?
What is the name of the signal component that carries color information in NTSC video?
Which of the following is a common method of transmitting accompanying audio with amateur fast-scan television?
What hardware, other than a receiver with SSB capability and a suitable computer, is needed to decode SSTV using Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)?
Which of the following is an acceptable bandwidth for Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) based voice or SSTV digital transmissions made on the HF amateur bands?
What is the function of the Vertical Interval Signaling (VIS) code sent as part of an SSTV transmission?
How are analog SSTV images typically transmitted on the HF bands?
How many lines are commonly used in each frame of an amateur slow-scan color television picture?
What aspect of an amateur slow-scan television signal encodes the brightness of the picture?
What signals SSTV receiving equipment to begin a new picture line?
Which is a video standard used by North American Fast Scan ATV stations?
What is the approximate bandwidth of a slow-scan TV signal?
On which of the following frequencies is one likely to find FM ATV transmissions?
What special operating frequency restrictions are imposed on slow scan TV transmissions?
Which of the following is true about contest operating?
Which of the following best describes the term self-spotting in regards to HF contest operating?
From which of the following bands is amateur radio contesting generally excluded?
What type of transmission is most often used for a ham radio mesh network?
What is the function of a DX QSL Manager?
During a VHF/UHF contest, in which band segment would you expect to find the highest level of activity?
What is the Cabrillo format?
Which of the following contacts may be confirmed through the U.S. QSL bureau system?
What type of equipment is commonly used to implement a ham radio mesh network?
Why might a DX station state that they are listening on another frequency?
How should you generally identify your station when attempting to contact a DX station during a contest or in a pileup?
What might help to restore contact when DX signals become too weak to copy across an entire HF band a few hours after sunset?
What indicator is required to be used by U.S.-licensed operators when operating a station via remote control where the transmitter is located in the U.S.?
Which of the following digital modes is especially designed for use for meteor scatter signals?
Which of the following is a good technique for making meteor scatter contacts?
Which of the following digital modes is especially useful for EME communications?
What is the purpose of digital store-and-forward functions on an Amateur Radio satellite?
Which of the following techniques is normally used by low Earth orbiting digital satellites to relay messages around the world?
Which of the following describes a method of establishing EME contacts?
What digital protocol is used by APRS?
What type of packet frame is used to transmit APRS beacon data?
Which of these digital modes has the fastest data throughput under clear communication conditions?
How can an APRS station be used to help support a public service communications activity?
Which of the following data are used by the APRS network to communicate your location?
How does JT65 improve EME communications?
What type of modulation is used for JT65 contacts?
What is one advantage of using JT65 coding?
Which type of modulation is common for data emissions below 30 MHz?
What do the letters FEC mean as they relate to digital operation?
How is the timing of JT65 contacts organized?
What is indicated when one of the ellipses in an FSK crossed-ellipse display suddenly disappears?
Which type of digital mode does not support keyboard-to-keyboard operation?
What is the most common data rate used for HF packet?
What is the typical bandwidth of a properly modulated MFSK16 signal?
Which of the following HF digital modes can be used to transfer binary files?
Which of the following HF digital modes uses variable-length coding for bandwidth efficiency?
Which of these digital modes has the narrowest bandwidth?
What is the difference between direct FSK and audio FSK?
Which type of control is used by stations using the Automatic Link Enable (ALE) protocol?
Which of the following is a possible reason that attempts to initiate contact with a digital station on a clear frequency are unsuccessful?
What is the approximate maximum separation measured along the surface of the Earth between two stations communicating by Moon bounce?
What characterizes libration fading of an EME signal?
When scheduling EME contacts, which of these conditions will generally result in the least path loss?
What do Hepburn maps predict?
Tropospheric propagation of microwave signals often occurs along what weather related structure?
Which of the following is required for microwave propagation via rain scatter?
Atmospheric ducts capable of propagating microwave signals often form over what geographic feature?
When a meteor strikes the Earth's atmosphere, a cylindrical region of free electrons is formed at what layer of the ionosphere?
Which of the following frequency range is most suited for meteor scatter communications?
Which type of atmospheric structure can create a path for microwave propagation?
What is a typical range for tropospheric propagation of microwave signals?
What is the cause of auroral activity?
Which emission mode is best for aurora propagation?
From the contiguous 48 states, in which approximate direction should an antenna be pointed to take maximum advantage of aurora propagation?
What is an electromagnetic wave?
Which of the following best describes electromagnetic waves traveling in free space?
What is meant by circularly polarized electromagnetic waves?
What is transequatorial propagation?
What is the approximate maximum range for signals using transequatorial propagation?
What is the best time of day for transequatorial propagation?
What is meant by the terms extraordinary and ordinary waves?
Which amateur bands typically support long-path propagation?
Which of the following amateur bands most frequently provides long-path propagation?
Which of the following could account for hearing an echo on the received signal of a distant station?
What type of HF propagation is probably occurring if radio signals travel along the terminator between daylight and darkness?
At what time of year is Sporadic E propagation most likely to occur?
What is the cause of gray-line propagation?
At what time of day is Sporadic-E propagation most likely to occur?
What is the primary characteristic of chordal hop propagation?
Why is chordal hop propagation desirable?
What happens to linearly polarized radio waves that split into ordinary and extraordinary waves in the ionosphere?
What does the term ray tracing describe in regard to radio communications?
What is indicated by a rising A or K index?
Which of the following signal paths is most likely to experience high levels of absorption when the A index or K index is elevated?
What does the value of Bz (B sub Z) represent?
What orientation of Bz (B sub z) increases the likelihood that incoming particles from the Sun will cause disturbed conditions?
By how much does the VHF/UHF radio horizon distance exceed the geometric horizon?
Which of the following descriptors indicates the greatest solar flare intensity?
What does the space weather term G5 mean?
How does the intensity of an X3 flare compare to that of an X2 flare?
What does the 304A solar parameter measure?
What does VOACAP software model?
How does the maximum distance of ground-wave propagation change when the signal frequency is increased?
What type of polarization is best for ground-wave propagation?
Why does the radio-path horizon distance exceed the geometric horizon?
What might a sudden rise in radio background noise indicate?
Which of the following parameter determines the bandwidth of a digital or computer-based oscilloscope?
Which of the following parameters would a spectrum analyzer display on the vertical and horizontal axes?
Which of the following test instrument is used to display spurious signals and/or intermodulation distortion products in an SSB transmitter?
What determines the upper frequency limit for a computer soundcard-based oscilloscope program?
What might be an advantage of a digital vs an analog oscilloscope?
What is the effect of aliasing in a digital or computer-based oscilloscope?
Which of the following is an advantage of using an antenna analyzer compared to an SWR bridge to measure antenna SWR?
Which of the following instrument would be best for measuring the SWR of a beam antenna?
When using a computer's soundcard input to digitize signals, what is the highest frequency signal that can be digitized without aliasing?
Which of the following displays multiple digital signal states simultaneously?
Which of the following is good practice when using an oscilloscope probe?
Which of the following procedures is an important precaution to follow when connecting a spectrum analyzer to a transmitter output?
How is the compensation of an oscilloscope probe typically adjusted?
What is the purpose of the prescaler function on a frequency counter?
What is an advantage of a period-measuring frequency counter over a direct-count type?
Which of the following factors most affects the accuracy of a frequency counter?
What is an advantage of using a bridge circuit to measure impedance?
If a frequency counter with a specified accuracy of +/- 1.0 ppm reads 146,520,000 Hz, what is the most the actual frequency being measured could differ from the reading?
If a frequency counter with a specified accuracy of +/- 0.1 ppm reads 146,520,000 Hz, what is the most the actual frequency being measured could differ from the reading?
If a frequency counter with a specified accuracy of +/- 10 ppm reads 146,520,000 Hz, what is the most the actual frequency being measured could differ from the reading?
How much power is being absorbed by the load when a directional power meter connected between a transmitter and a terminating load reads 100 watts forward power and 25 watts reflected power?
What do the subscripts of S parameters represent?
Which of the following is a characteristic of a good DC voltmeter?
What is indicated if the current reading on an RF ammeter placed in series with the antenna feed line of a transmitter increases as the transmitter is tuned to resonance?
Which of the following describes a method to measure intermodulation distortion in an SSB transmitter?
How should an antenna analyzer be connected when measuring antenna resonance and feed point impedance?
What is the significance of voltmeter sensitivity expressed in ohms per volt?
Which S parameter is equivalent to forward gain?
What happens if a dip meter is too tightly coupled to a tuned circuit being checked?
Which of the following can be used as a relative measurement of the Q for a series-tuned circuit?
Which S parameter represents return loss or SWR?
What three test loads are used to calibrate a standard RF vector network analyzer?
What is an effect of excessive phase noise in the local oscillator section of a receiver?
Which of the following portions of a receiver can be effective in eliminating image signal interference?
What is the term for the blocking of one FM phone signal by another, stronger FM phone signal?
How is the noise figure of a receiver defined?
What does a value of -174 dBm/Hz represent with regard to the noise floor of a receiver?
A CW receiver with the AGC off has an equivalent input noise power density of -174 dBm/Hz. What would be the level of an unmodulated carrier input to this receiver that would yield an audio output SNR of 0 dB in a 400 Hz noise bandwidth?
What does the MDS of a receiver represent?
An SDR receiver is overloaded when input signals exceed what level?
Which of the following choices is a good reason for selecting a high frequency for the design of the IF in a conventional HF or VHF communications receiver?
Which of the following is a desirable amount of selectivity for an amateur RTTY HF receiver?
Which of the following is a desirable amount of selectivity for an amateur SSB phone receiver?
What is an undesirable effect of using too wide a filter bandwidth in the IF section of a receiver?
How does a narrow-band roofing filter affect receiver performance?
What transmit frequency might generate an image response signal in a receiver tuned to 14.300 MHz and which uses a 455 kHz IF frequency?
What is usually the primary source of noise that is heard from an HF receiver with an antenna connected?
Which of the following is caused by missing codes in an SDR receiver's analog-to-digital converter?
Which of the following has the largest effect on an SDR receiver's linearity?
What is meant by the blocking dynamic range of a receiver?
Which of the following describes two problems caused by poor dynamic range in a communications receiver?
How can intermodulation interference between two repeaters occur?
Which of the following may reduce or eliminate intermodulation interference in a repeater caused by another transmitter operating in close proximity?
What transmitter frequencies would cause an intermodulation-product signal in a receiver tuned to 146.70 MHz when a nearby station transmits on 146.52 MHz?
What is the term for unwanted signals generated by the mixing of two or more signals?
Which describes the most significant effect of an off-frequency signal when it is causing cross-modulation interference to a desired signal?
What causes intermodulation in an electronic circuit?
What is the purpose of the preselector in a communications receiver?
What does a third-order intercept level of 40 dBm mean with respect to receiver performance?
Why are third-order intermodulation products created within a receiver of particular interest compared to other products?
What is the term for the reduction in receiver sensitivity caused by a strong signal near the received frequency?
Which of the following can cause receiver desensitization?
Which of the following is a way to reduce the likelihood of receiver desensitization?
Which of the following types of receiver noise can often be reduced by use of a receiver noise blanker?
Which of the following types of receiver noise can often be reduced with a DSP noise filter?
Which of the following signals might a receiver noise blanker be able to remove from desired signals?
How can conducted and radiated noise caused by an automobile alternator be suppressed?
How can noise from an electric motor be suppressed?
What is a major cause of atmospheric static?
How can you determine if line noise interference is being generated within your home?
What type of signal is picked up by electrical wiring near a radio antenna?
What undesirable effect can occur when using an IF noise blanker?
What is a common characteristic of interference caused by a touch controlled electrical device?
Which is the most likely cause if you are hearing combinations of local AM broadcast signals within one or more of the MF or HF ham bands?
What is one disadvantage of using some types of automatic DSP notch-filters when attempting to copy CW signals?
What might be the cause of a loud roaring or buzzing AC line interference that comes and goes at intervals?
What is one type of electrical interference that might be caused by the operation of a nearby personal computer?
Which of the following can cause shielded cables to radiate or receive interference?
What current flows equally on all conductors of an unshielded multi-conductor cable?
What can cause the voltage across reactances in series to be larger than the voltage applied to them?
What is resonance in an electrical circuit?
What is the magnitude of the impedance of a series RLC circuit at resonance?
What is the magnitude of the impedance of a circuit with a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor all in parallel, at resonance?
What is the magnitude of the current at the input of a series RLC circuit as the frequency goes through resonance?
What is the magnitude of the circulating current within the components of a parallel LC circuit at resonance?
What is the magnitude of the current at the input of a parallel RLC circuit at resonance?
What is the phase relationship between the current through and the voltage across a series resonant circuit at resonance?
How is the Q of an RLC parallel resonant circuit calculated?
How is the Q of an RLC series resonant circuit calculated?
What is the half-power bandwidth of a parallel resonant circuit that has a resonant frequency of 7.1 MHz and a Q of 150?
What is the half-power bandwidth of a parallel resonant circuit that has a resonant frequency of 3.7 MHz and a Q of 118?
What is an effect of increasing Q in a resonant circuit?
What is the resonant frequency of a series RLC circuit if R is 22 ohms, L is 50 microhenrys and C is 40 picofarads?
Which of the following can increase Q for inductors and capacitors?
What is the resonant frequency of a parallel RLC circuit if R is 33 ohms, L is 50 microhenrys and C is 10 picofarads?
What is the result of increasing the Q of an impedance-matching circuit?
What is the term for the time required for the capacitor in an RC circuit to be charged to 63.2% of the applied voltage?
What is the term for the time it takes for a charged capacitor in an RC circuit to discharge to 36.8% of its initial voltage?
What happens to the phase angle of a reactance when it is converted to a susceptance?
What is the time constant of a circuit having two 220 microfarad capacitors and two 1 megohm resistors, all in parallel?
What happens to the magnitude of a reactance when it is converted to a susceptance?
What is susceptance?
What is the phase angle between the voltage across and the current through a series RLC circuit if XC is 500 ohms, R is 1 kilohm, and XL is 250 ohms?
What is the phase angle between the voltage across and the current through a series RLC circuit if XC is 100 ohms, R is 100 ohms, and XL is 75 ohms?
What is the relationship between the current through a capacitor and the voltage across a capacitor?
What is the relationship between the current through an inductor and the voltage across an inductor?
What is the phase angle between the voltage across and the current through a series RLC circuit if XC is 25 ohms, R is 100 ohms, and XL is 50 ohms?
What is admittance?
What letter is commonly used to represent susceptance?
Which of the following represents a capacitive reactance in rectangular notation?
How are impedances described in polar coordinates?
Which of the following represents an inductive reactance in polar coordinates?
Which of the following represents a capacitive reactance in polar coordinates?
What is the name of the diagram used to show the phase relationship between impedances at a given frequency?
What does the impedance 50-j25 represent?
What is a vector?
What coordinate system is often used to display the phase angle of a circuit containing resistance, inductive and/or capacitive reactance?
When using rectangular coordinates to graph the impedance of a circuit, what does the horizontal axis represent?
When using rectangular coordinates to graph the impedance of a circuit, what does the vertical axis represent?
What do the two numbers that are used to define a point on a graph using rectangular coordinates represent?
If you plot the impedance of a circuit using the rectangular coordinate system and find the impedance point falls on the right side of the graph on the horizontal axis, what do you know about the circuit?
What coordinate system is often used to display the resistive, inductive, and/or capacitive reactance components of impedance?
What is the result of skin effect?
Why is it important to keep lead lengths short for components used in circuits for VHF and above?
What is microstrip?
Why are short connections necessary at microwave frequencies?
Which parasitic characteristic increases with conductor length?
In what direction is the magnetic field oriented about a conductor in relation to the direction of electron flow?
What determines the strength of the magnetic field around a conductor?
What type of energy is stored in an electromagnetic or electrostatic field?
What happens to reactive power in an AC circuit that has both ideal inductors and ideal capacitors?
How can the true power be determined in an AC circuit where the voltage and current are out of phase?
What is the power factor of an R-L circuit having a 60 degree phase angle between the voltage and the current?
How many watts are consumed in a circuit having a power factor of 0.2 if the input is 100-VAC at 4 amperes?
How much power is consumed in a circuit consisting of a 100 ohm resistor in series with a 100 ohm inductive reactance drawing 1 ampere?
What is reactive power?
What is the power factor of an R-L circuit having a 45 degree phase angle between the voltage and the current?
What is the power factor of an R-L circuit having a 30 degree phase angle between the voltage and the current?
How many watts are consumed in a circuit having a power factor of 0.6 if the input is 200VAC at 5 amperes?
How many watts are consumed in a circuit having a power factor of 0.71 if the apparent power is 500VA?
In what application is gallium arsenide used as a semiconductor material in preference to germanium or silicon?
Which of the following semiconductor materials contains excess free electrons?
Why does a PN-junction diode not conduct current when reverse biased?
What is the name given to an impurity atom that adds holes to a semiconductor crystal structure?
What is the alpha of a bipolar junction transistor?
What is the beta of a bipolar junction transistor?
Which of the following indicates that a silicon NPN junction transistor is biased on?
What term indicates the frequency at which the grounded-base current gain of a transistor has decreased to 0.7 of the gain obtainable at 1 kHz?
What is a depletion-mode FET?
Why do many MOSFET devices have internally connected Zener diodes on the gates?
What do the initials CMOS stand for?
How does DC input impedance at the gate of a field-effect transistor compare with the DC input impedance of a bipolar transistor?
Which semiconductor material contains excess holes in the outer shell of electrons?
What are the majority charge carriers in N-type semiconductor material?
What are the names of the three terminals of a field-effect transistor?
What is the most useful characteristic of a Zener diode?
What is an important characteristic of a Schottky diode as compared to an ordinary silicon diode when used as a power supply rectifier?
What special type of diode is capable of both amplification and oscillation?
What type of semiconductor device is designed for use as a voltage-controlled capacitor?
What characteristic of a PIN diode makes it useful as an RF switch or attenuator?
Which of the following is a common use of a hot-carrier diode?
What is the failure mechanism when a junction diode fails due to excessive current?
Which of the following describes a type of semiconductor diode?
What is a common use for point contact diodes?
What is used to control the attenuation of RF signals by a PIN diode?
What is one common use for PIN diodes?
What type of bias is required for an LED to emit light?
What is the function of hysteresis in a comparator?
What happens when the level of a comparator's input signal crosses the threshold?
What is tri-state logic?
What is the primary advantage of tri-state logic?
What is an advantage of CMOS logic devices over TTL devices?
Why do CMOS digital integrated circuits have high immunity to noise on the input signal or power supply?
What best describes a pull-up or pull-down resistor?
What is a Programmable Logic Device (PLD)?
What is BiCMOS logic?
Which of the following is an advantage of BiCMOS logic?
What is the primary advantage of using a Programmable Gate Array (PGA) in a logic circuit?
How many turns will be required to produce a 5-microhenry inductor using a powdered-iron toroidal core that has an inductance index (A L) value of 40 microhenrys/100 turns?
What is the equivalent circuit of a quartz crystal?
Which of the following is an aspect of the piezoelectric effect?
Which materials are commonly used as a slug core in a variable inductor?
What is one reason for using ferrite cores rather than powdered-iron in an inductor?
What core material property determines the inductance of a toroidal inductor?
What is the usable frequency range of inductors that use toroidal cores, assuming a correct selection of core material for the frequency being used?
What is one reason for using powdered-iron cores rather than ferrite cores in an inductor?
What devices are commonly used as VHF and UHF parasitic suppressors at the input and output terminals of a transistor HF amplifier?
What is a primary advantage of using a toroidal core instead of a solenoidal core in an inductor?
How many turns will be required to produce a 1-mH inductor using a core that has an inductance index (A L) value of 523 millihenrys/1000 turns?
What is the definition of saturation in a ferrite core inductor?
What is the primary cause of inductor self-resonance?
Which type of slug material decreases inductance when inserted into a coil?
What is current in the primary winding of a transformer called if no load is attached to the secondary?
What is the common name for a capacitor connected across a transformer secondary that is used to absorb transient voltage spikes?
Why should core saturation of a conventional impedance matching transformer be avoided?
Which of the following is true of a charge-coupled device (CCD)?
Which of the following device packages is a through-hole type?
Which of the following materials is likely to provide the highest frequency of operation when used in MMICs?
Which is the most common input and output impedance of circuits that use MMICs?
Which of the following noise figure values is typical of a low-noise UHF preamplifier?
What characteristics of the MMIC make it a popular choice for VHF through microwave circuits?
Which of the following is typically used to construct a MMIC-based microwave amplifier?
How is voltage from a power supply normally furnished to the most common type of monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC)?
Which of the following component package types would be most suitable for use at frequencies above the HF range?
What is the packaging technique in which leadless components are soldered directly to circuit boards?
What is a characteristic of DIP packaging used for integrated circuits?
Why are high-power RF amplifier ICs and transistors sometimes mounted in ceramic packages?
What is photoconductivity?
What happens to the conductivity of a photoconductive material when light shines on it?
What is the most common configuration of an optoisolator or optocoupler?
What is the photovoltaic effect?
Which describes an optical shaft encoder?
Which of these materials is affected the most by photoconductivity?
What is a solid state relay?
Why are optoisolators often used in conjunction with solid state circuits when switching 120VAC?
What is the efficiency of a photovoltaic cell?
What is the most common type of photovoltaic cell used for electrical power generation?
What is the approximate open-circuit voltage produced by a fully-illuminated silicon photovoltaic cell?
What absorbs the energy from light falling on a photovoltaic cell?
What is a liquid crystal display (LCD)?
Which of the following is true of LCD displays?
Which is a bi-stable circuit?
What is the function of a decade counter digital IC?
Which of the following can divide the frequency of a pulse train by 2?
How many flip-flops are required to divide a signal frequency by 4?
Which of the following is a circuit that continuously alternates between two states without an external clock?
What is a characteristic of a monostable multivibrator?
What logical operation does a NAND gate perform?
What logical operation does an OR gate perform?
What logical operation is performed by an exclusive NOR gate?
What is a truth table?
What type of logic defines "1" as a high voltage?
What type of logic defines "0" as a high voltage?
For what portion of a signal cycle does a Class AB amplifier operate?
What is a Class D amplifier?
Which of the following components form the output of a class D amplifier circuit?
Where on the load line of a Class A common emitter amplifier would bias normally be set?
What can be done to prevent unwanted oscillations in an RF power amplifier?
Which of the following amplifier types reduces or eliminates even order harmonics?
Which of the following is a likely result when a Class C amplifier is used to amplify a single-sideband phone signal?
How can an RF power amplifier be neutralized?
Which of the following describes how the loading and tuning capacitors are to be adjusted when tuning a vacuum tube RF power amplifier that employs a Pi-network output circuit?
Why are switching amplifiers more efficient than linear amplifiers?
What is one way to prevent thermal runaway in a bipolar transistor amplifier?
What is the effect of intermodulation products in a linear power amplifier?
Why are odd-order rather than even-order intermodulation distortion products of concern in linear power amplifiers?
What is a characteristic of a grounded-grid amplifier?
How are the capacitors and inductors of a low-pass filter Pi-network arranged between the network's input and output?
Which of the following is a property of a T-network with series capacitors and a parallel shunt inductor?
What advantage does a Pi-L-network have over a regular Pi-network for impedance matching between the final amplifier of a vacuum-tube transmitter and an antenna?
How does an impedance-matching circuit transform a complex impedance to a resistive impedance?
Which filter type is described as having ripple in the passband and a sharp cutoff?
What are the distinguishing features of an elliptical filter?
What kind of filter would you use to attenuate an interfering carrier signal while receiving an SSB transmission?
Which of the following factors has the greatest effect in helping determine the bandwidth and response shape of a crystal ladder filter?
What is a Jones filter as used as part of an HF receiver IF stage?
Which of the following filters would be the best choice for use in a 2 meter repeater duplexer?
Which of the following is the common name for a filter network which is equivalent to two L-networks connected back-to-back with the two inductors in series and the capacitors in shunt at the input and output?
Which describes a Pi-L-network used for matching a vacuum tube final amplifier to a 50 ohm unbalanced output?
What is one advantage of a Pi-matching network over an L-matching network consisting of a single inductor and a single capacitor?
Which mode is most affected by non-linear phase response in a receiver IF filter?
What is a crystal lattice filter?
What is one characteristic of a linear electronic voltage regulator?
What is one characteristic of a switching electronic voltage regulator?
What device is typically used as a stable reference voltage in a linear voltage regulator?
Which of the following types of linear voltage regulator usually make the most efficient use of the primary power source?
Which of the following types of linear voltage regulator places a constant load on the unregulated voltage source?
What is the main reason to use a charge controller with a solar power system?
What is the primary reason that a high-frequency switching type high voltage power supply can be both less expensive and lighter in weight than a conventional power supply?
What circuit element is controlled by a series analog voltage regulator to maintain a constant output voltage?
What is the drop-out voltage of an analog voltage regulator?
What is the equation for calculating power dissipation by a series connected linear voltage regulator?
What is one purpose of a "bleeder" resistor in a conventional unregulated power supply?
What is the purpose of a "step-start" circuit in a high voltage power supply?
When several electrolytic filter capacitors are connected in series to increase the operating voltage of a power supply filter circuit, why should resistors be connected across each capacitor?
Which of the following can be used to generate FM phone emissions?
What is the function of a reactance modulator?
How does an analog phase modulator function?
What is one way a single-sideband phone signal can be generated?
What circuit is added to an FM transmitter to boost the higher audio frequencies?
Why is de-emphasis commonly used in FM communications receivers?
What is meant by the term baseband in radio communications?
What are the principal frequencies that appear at the output of a mixer circuit?
What occurs when an excessive amount of signal energy reaches a mixer circuit?
How does a diode detector function?
Which type of detector is used for demodulating SSB signals?
What is a frequency discriminator stage in a FM receiver?
What is meant by direct digital conversion as applied to software defined radios?
What kind of digital signal processing audio filter is used to remove unwanted noise from a received SSB signal?
What type of digital signal processing filter is used to generate an SSB signal?
What is a common method of generating an SSB signal using digital signal processing?
How frequently must an analog signal be sampled by an analog-to-digital converter so that the signal can be accurately reproduced?
What is the minimum number of bits required for an analog-to-digital converter to sample a signal with a range of 1 volt at a resolution of 1 millivolt?
What function can a Fast Fourier Transform perform?
What is the function of decimation with regard to digital filters?
Why is an anti-aliasing digital filter required in a digital decimator?
What aspect of receiver analog-to-digital conversion determines the maximum receive bandwidth of a Direct Digital Conversion SDR?
What sets the minimum detectable signal level for an SDR in the absence of atmospheric or thermal noise?
What digital process is applied to I and Q signals in order to recover the baseband modulation information?
What is the function of taps in a digital signal processing filter?
Which of the following would allow a digital signal processing filter to create a sharper filter response?
Which of the following is an advantage of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter vs an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) digital filter?
How might the sampling rate of an existing digital signal be adjusted by a factor of 3/4?
What do the letters I and Q in I/Q Modulation represent?
What is the typical output impedance of an integrated circuit op-amp?
What is the effect of ringing in a filter?
What is the typical input impedance of an integrated circuit op-amp?
What is meant by the term op-amp input offset voltage?
How can unwanted ringing and audio instability be prevented in a multi-section op-amp RC audio filter circuit?
Which of the following is the most appropriate use of an op-amp active filter?
How does the gain of an ideal operational amplifier vary with frequency?
What is an integrated circuit operational amplifier?
What are three oscillator circuits used in Amateur Radio equipment?
Which describes a microphonic?
How is positive feedback supplied in a Hartley oscillator?
How is positive feedback supplied in a Colpitts oscillator?
How is positive feedback supplied in a Pierce oscillator?
Which of the following oscillator circuits are commonly used in VFOs?
How can an oscillator's microphonic responses be reduced?
Which of the following components can be used to reduce thermal drift in crystal oscillators?
What type of frequency synthesizer circuit uses a phase accumulator, lookup table, digital to analog converter, and a low-pass anti-alias filter?
What information is contained in the lookup table of a direct digital frequency synthesizer?
What are the major spectral impurity components of direct digital synthesizers?
Which of the following must be done to insure that a crystal oscillator provides the frequency specified by the crystal manufacturer?
Which of the following is a technique for providing highly accurate and stable oscillators needed for microwave transmission and reception?
What is a phase-locked loop circuit?
Which of these functions can be performed by a phase-locked loop?
What is the name of the process that shows that a square wave is made up of a sine wave plus all of its odd harmonics?
What type of wave has a rise time significantly faster than its fall time (or vice versa)?
What type of wave does a Fourier analysis show to be made up of sine waves of a given fundamental frequency plus all of its harmonics?
What is "dither" with respect to analog to digital converters?
What would be the most accurate way of measuring the RMS voltage of a complex waveform?
What is the approximate ratio of PEP-to-average power in a typical single-sideband phone signal?
What determines the PEP-to-average power ratio of a single-sideband phone signal?
Why would a direct or flash conversion analog-to-digital converter be useful for a software defined radio?
How many levels can an analog-to-digital converter with 8 bit resolution encode?
What is the purpose of a low pass filter used in conjunction with a digital-to-analog converter?
What type of information can be conveyed using digital waveforms?
What is an advantage of using digital signals instead of analog signals to convey the same information?
Which of these methods is commonly used to convert analog signals to digital signals?
What is the term for the ratio between the frequency deviation of an RF carrier wave and the modulating frequency of its corresponding FM-phone signal?
How does the modulation index of a phase-modulated emission vary with RF carrier frequency (the modulated frequency)?
What is the modulation index of an FM-phone signal having a maximum frequency deviation of 3000 Hz either side of the carrier frequency when the modulating frequency is 1000 Hz?
What is the modulation index of an FM-phone signal having a maximum carrier deviation of plus or minus 6 kHz when modulated with a 2 kHz modulating frequency?
What is the deviation ratio of an FM-phone signal having a maximum frequency swing of plus-or-minus 5 kHz when the maximum modulation frequency is 3 kHz?
What is the deviation ratio of an FM-phone signal having a maximum frequency swing of plus or minus 7.5 kHz when the maximum modulation frequency is 3.5 kHz?
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a technique used for which type of amateur communication?
What describes Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing?
What is meant by deviation ratio?
What describes frequency division multiplexing?
What is digital time division multiplexing?
How is Forward Error Correction implemented?
What is the definition of symbol rate in a digital transmission?
When performing phase shift keying, why is it advantageous to shift phase precisely at the zero crossing of the RF carrier?
What technique is used to minimize the bandwidth requirements of a PSK31 signal?
What is the necessary bandwidth of a 13-WPM international Morse code transmission?
What is the necessary bandwidth of a 170-hertz shift, 300-baud ASCII transmission?
What is the necessary bandwidth of a 4800-Hz frequency shift, 9600-baud ASCII FM transmission?
How does ARQ accomplish error correction?
Which is the name of a digital code where each preceding or following character changes by only one bit?
What is an advantage of Gray code in digital communications where symbols are transmitted as multiple bits?
What is the relationship between symbol rate and baud?
Why are received spread spectrum signals resistant to interference?
What spread spectrum communications technique uses a high speed binary bit stream to shift the phase of an RF carrier?
How does the spread spectrum technique of frequency hopping work?
What is the primary effect of extremely short rise or fall time on a CW signal?
What is the most common method of reducing key clicks?
Which of the following indicates likely overmodulation of an AFSK signal such as PSK or MFSK?
What is a common cause of overmodulation of AFSK signals?
What parameter might indicate that excessively high input levels are causing distortion in an AFSK signal?
What is considered a good minimum IMD level for an idling PSK signal?
What are some of the differences between the Baudot digital code and ASCII?
What is one advantage of using ASCII code for data communications?
What is the advantage of including a parity bit with an ASCII character stream?
What describes an isotropic antenna?
What antenna has no gain in any direction?
Why would one need to know the feed point impedance of an antenna?
Which of the following factors may affect the feed point impedance of an antenna?
What is included in the total resistance of an antenna system?
How does the beamwidth of an antenna vary as the gain is increased?
What is meant by antenna gain?
What is meant by antenna bandwidth?
How is antenna efficiency calculated?
Which of the following choices is a way to improve the efficiency of a ground-mounted quarter-wave vertical antenna?
Which of the following factors determines ground losses for a ground-mounted vertical antenna operating in the 3 MHz to 30 MHz range?
How much gain does an antenna have compared to a 1/2-wavelength dipole when it has 6 dB gain over an isotropic antenna?
How much gain does an antenna have compared to a 1/2-wavelength dipole when it has 12 dB gain over an isotropic antenna?
What is meant by the radiation resistance of an antenna?
What is the effective radiated power relative to a dipole of a repeater station with 150 watts transmitter power output, 2 dB feed line loss, 2.2 dB duplexer loss, and 7 dBd antenna gain?
What is the effective radiated power relative to a dipole of a repeater station with 200 watts transmitter power output, 4 dB feed line loss, 3.2 dB duplexer loss, 0.8 dB circulator loss, and 10 dBd antenna gain?
What is the effective radiated power of a repeater station with 200 watts transmitter power output, 2 dB feed line loss, 2.8 dB duplexer loss, 1.2 dB circulator loss, and 7 dBi antenna gain?
What term describes station output, taking into account all gains and losses?
What may occur when a directional antenna is operated at different frequencies within the band for which it was designed?
How does the total amount of radiation emitted by a directional gain antenna compare with the total amount of radiation emitted from an isotropic antenna, assuming each is driven by the same amount of power?
How can the approximate beam-width in a given plane of a directional antenna be determined?
What type of computer program technique is commonly used for modeling antennas?
What is the principle of a Method of Moments analysis?
What is a disadvantage of decreasing the number of wire segments in an antenna model below the guideline of 10 segments per half-wavelength?
What is the far field of an antenna?
What does the abbreviation NEC stand for when applied to antenna modeling programs?
What type of information can be obtained by submitting the details of a proposed new antenna to a modeling program?
What is the radiation pattern of two 1/4-wavelength vertical antennas spaced 1/2-wavelength apart and fed 180 degrees out of phase?
What is the radiation pattern of two 1/4 wavelength vertical antennas spaced 1/4 wavelength apart and fed 90 degrees out of phase?
What is the radiation pattern of two 1/4 wavelength vertical antennas spaced a 1/2 wavelength apart and fed in phase?
What happens to the radiation pattern of an unterminated long wire antenna as the wire length is increased?
What is an OCFD antenna?
What is the effect of a terminating resistor on a rhombic antenna?
What is the approximate feed point impedance at the center of a two-wire folded dipole antenna?
What is a folded dipole antenna?
What is a G5RV antenna?
Which of the following describes a Zepp antenna?
How is the far-field elevation pattern of a vertically polarized antenna affected by being mounted over seawater versus rocky ground?
Which of the following describes an extended double Zepp antenna?
What is the main effect of placing a vertical antenna over an imperfect ground?
How does the performance of a horizontally polarized antenna mounted on the side of a hill compare with the same antenna mounted on flat ground?
How does the radiation pattern of a horizontally polarized 3-element beam antenna vary with its height above ground?
How does the gain of an ideal parabolic dish antenna change when the operating frequency is doubled?
How can linearly polarized Yagi antennas be used to produce circular polarization?
Where should a high Q loading coil be placed to minimize losses in a shortened vertical antenna?
Why should an HF mobile antenna loading coil have a high ratio of reactance to resistance?
What is a disadvantage of using a multiband trapped antenna?
What happens to the bandwidth of an antenna as it is shortened through the use of loading coils?
What is an advantage of using top loading in a shortened HF vertical antenna?
What happens as the Q of an antenna increases?
What is the function of a loading coil used as part of an HF mobile antenna?
What happens to feed point impedance at the base of a fixed length HF mobile antenna as the frequency of operation is lowered?
Which of the following types of conductors would be best for minimizing losses in a station's RF ground system?
Which of the following would provide the best RF ground for your station?
What usually occurs if a Yagi antenna is designed solely for maximum forward gain?
What system matches a higher impedance transmission line to a lower impedance antenna by connecting the line to the driven element in two places spaced a fraction of a wavelength each side of element center?
What is the name of an antenna matching system that matches an unbalanced feed line to an antenna by feeding the driven element both at the center of the element and at a fraction of a wavelength to one side of center?
What is the name of the matching system that uses a section of transmission line connected in parallel with the feed line at or near the feed point?
What is the purpose of the series capacitor in a gamma-type antenna matching network?
How must the driven element in a 3-element Yagi be tuned to use a hairpin matching system?
What is the equivalent lumped-constant network for a hairpin matching system of a3-element Yagi?
What term best describes the interactions at the load end of a mismatched transmission line?
Which of the following measurements is characteristic of a mismatched transmission line?
Which of these matching systems is an effective method of connecting a 50 ohm coaxial cable feed line to a grounded tower so it can be used as a vertical antenna?
Which of these choices is an effective way to match an antenna with a 100 ohm feed point impedance to a 50 ohm coaxial cable feed line?
What is an effective way of matching a feed line to a VHF or UHF antenna when the impedances of both the antenna and feed line are unknown?
What is the primary purpose of a phasing line when used with an antenna having multiple driven elements?
What is a use for a Wilkinson divider?
What is the velocity factor of a transmission line?
Which of the following determines the velocity factor of a transmission line?
Why is the physical length of a coaxial cable transmission line shorter than its electrical length?
What is the typical velocity factor for a coaxial cable with solid polyethylene dielectric?
What is the approximate physical length of a solid polyethylene dielectric coaxial transmission line that is electrically one-quarter wavelength long at 14.1 MHz?
What is the approximate physical length of an air-insulated, parallel conductor transmission line that is electrically one-half wavelength long at 14.10 MHz?
How does ladder line compare to small-diameter coaxial cable such as RG-58 at 50 MHz?
What is the term for the ratio of the actual speed at which a signal travels through a transmission line to the speed of light in a vacuum?
What is the approximate physical length of a solid polyethylene dielectric coaxial transmission line that is electrically one-quarter wavelength long at 7.2 MHz?
What impedance does a 1/8 wavelength transmission line present to a generator when the line is shorted at the far end?
What impedance does a 1/8 wavelength transmission line present to a generator when the line is open at the far end?
What impedance does a 1/4 wavelength transmission line present to a generator when the line is open at the far end?
What impedance does a 1/4 wavelength transmission line present to a generator when the line is shorted at the far end?
What impedance does a 1/2 wavelength transmission line present to a generator when the line is shorted at the far end?
What impedance does a 1/2 wavelength transmission line present to a generator when the line is open at the far end?
Which of the following is a significant difference between foam dielectric coaxial cable and solid dielectric cable, assuming all other parameters are the same?
Which of the following can be calculated using a Smith chart?
What type of coordinate system is used in a Smith chart?
Which of the following is often determined using a Smith chart?
What are the two families of circles and arcs that make up a Smith chart?
What is the process of normalization with regard to a Smith chart?
What third family of circles is often added to a Smith chart during the process of solving problems?
What do the arcs on a Smith chart represent?
How are the wavelength scales on a Smith chart calibrated?
When constructing a Beverage antenna, which of the following factors should be included in the design to achieve good performance at the desired frequency?
Which is generally true for low band (160 meter and 80 meter) receiving antennas?
What is an advantage of using a shielded loop antenna for direction finding?
What is the main drawback of a wire-loop antenna for direction finding?
What is the triangulation method of direction finding?
Why is it advisable to use an RF attenuator on a receiver being used for direction finding?
What is the function of a sense antenna?
Which of the following describes the construction of a receiving loop antenna?
How can the output voltage of a multiple turn receiving loop antenna be increased?
What characteristic of a cardioid pattern antenna is useful for direction finding?
What is the primary function of an external earth connection or ground rod?
When evaluating RF exposure levels from your station at a neighbor's home, what must you do?
Which of the following would be a practical way to estimate whether the RF fields produced by an amateur radio station are within permissible MPE limits?
When evaluating a site with multiple transmitters operating at the same time, the operators and licensees of which transmitters are responsible for mitigating over-exposure situations?
What is one of the potential hazards of using microwaves in the amateur radio bands?
Why are there separate electric (E) and magnetic (H) field MPE limits?
How may dangerous levels of carbon monoxide from an emergency generator be detected?
What does SAR measure?
Which insulating material commonly used as a thermal conductor for some types of electronic devices is extremely toxic if broken or crushed and the particles are accidentally inhaled?
What toxic material may be present in some electronic components such as high voltage capacitors and transformers?
Which of the following injuries can result from using high-power UHF or microwave transmitters?